People spend 75-90% of their time indoors
Exposure to airborne contamination is considerable.
50% of all major office buildings have contaminated heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems (HVAC). If not properly maintained, they are a hotbed for growth of molds and bacteria.
Each person inhales over 3,500 gallons of air each day. Children inhale more particles for their size then adolescents or adults.
Polluted air causes 94% of all respiratory problems.
More than 31 million Americans have been diagnosed with asthma, about 1/3 are children under 18.
About 40,000 dust mites, a common household allergen, can live in one ounce of dust.
An estimated 10-15% of the entire population may be allergic to cat or dog dander.
A person sheds up to 700,000 skin flakes per day.
Indoor Air Pollutants
There are 3 types of indoor air pollutants - Particulates, Microbials and Gases.
Each of these is discussed in detail below :
Particulates are tiny particles suspended in the air. Common particulates include residential pollen, dust mites, dust, smoke and dander (skin flakes). Particulate diameters are measured in microns and range from .001 to 1,000 microns. These dimensions represent the continuum from a few molecules up to the size where particles can no longer be airborne. Dusts are minute solid particles less than 500 micrometers. Their composition changes by season. Dander is a material shed from the body of various animals and can be a very aggressive allergen. Pollens are released by certain plant species which are light weight and small. The Pollen particulates stay air born for extended period of time. The problems, created indoor by particulates, are mostly allergy related and can be identified by hay fever & ragweed allergies, dust allergies, cats & dogs allergies.

Note : These problems can be treated by either physically removing the irritating particles from the air or by using filtration which is most commonly used.
These are bacteria, germs, viruses, fungi, spores and mold. Bacteria is a single cell organism which is self contained and can reproduce without a host such as MRSA, E.coli, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus etc. Although bacteria is small in size and usually microscopic, it has an amazing ability to do damage to all living organisms including humans. Viruses are minimal structure of genetic material and protein which can only be seen with an electron microscope such as Norwalk, SARS, Avian Flu etc. Many daily illnesses are also caused by viruses like the common cold or the flu. Mold Spores are airborne single cell organism that grows into mold as soon as conditions permit. It causes allergic reaction, asthma episodes, irritations, infections, sinus, congestion problems and many more respiratory problems. Mold can be a dangerous allergen, cause infections, and destroy property requiring extensive repair and rebuilding. The potential microbial problems can be identified if anyone is more susceptible to illness (elderly – high risk such as children who go to school bring back germs or mold in the air conditioner, bathroom, basement etc.

Note : The only way to treat these microbes is by killing the germs in as much in the air as possible.
Indoor odors are caused by things like pets, cooking and garbage exist in every home and office. Gases such as benzene, formaldehyde, chloroform, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, etc. are released from furniture, cabinets, carpets, cleaning chemicals, insulation, insect sprays, hair sprays, and etc. Manufactures use chemicals to make these products and they evaporate these chemicals into the air which is termed as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). These VOCs can cause eyes, nose, throat irritation, headaches, loss of coordination, nausea and so on. Odors are caused by odorant molecules dissolved in the air such as pet odors, perfumes, food odors etc. The potentials problems arising from these gases can be identified if there are candles, sprays, incense or odor cover-ups in the room. Typical odors to watch out are of pets, cooking, kids, trash, new carpets/ furniture, paint, pressed wood or chemicals in use.

Note : These gases can be treated by breaking down the molecules in the conditioned space.

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